### ALTERNATING CURRENTS

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Her work has been the subject of documentary films shown on national television and in diverse film festivals. She is the recipient of numerous awards, notably the K. She is a sought after guest teacher in major training centres and universities in Canada as well as in Latin America in the field of modern dance, movement for singers and musicians, voice exploration and improvisation. Patti Shaughnessy is a proud activist, actor, director, and artistic producer of a range of theatre and multi-arts projects over the past decade.

Patti currently lives part-time in Douro-Dummer township, where she rejuvenates and creates at her ancestral home and research laboratory. Hunter Artist Award in theatre. Kate has developed and co-run two multi arts festivals in Peterborough, working with presenters Fleshy Thud and Public Energy and a wide array of arts and non-arts community partners, featuring over 75 artists and including workshops, learning and mentorship opportunities for youth, panel discussions, and original performance works: A Certain Place The Bernie Martin Festival , and Precarious: Peterborough ArtsWORK Festival.

Naomi Duvall, theatre, puppet, and burlesque artist, develops performance-object-centred autobiographical work about a scarf and her beloved grandmother. Nicole Malbeuf , a new-generation circus artist, explores water scarcity, drawing on her experience on a local organic farm.

Also a dance artist, Ryan is keen to bring in the full range of artistic responses to the War, particularly Dadaist music and theatre, the war poets, and family history. Public Energy gratefully acknowledges the generous support of our Season Funders and Sponsors. Thank You! The blue shading shows q, the integral under the current curve light for positive, dark for negative.

See how the lower frequency leads to a larger charge bigger shaded area before changing sign and therefore a larger V C. Thus for a capacitor, the ratio of voltage to current decreases with frequency. We shall see later how this can be used for filtering different frequencies. Inductors and the Farady emf An inductor is usually a coil of wire. In an ideal inductor, the resistance of this wire is negligibile, as is its capacitance. The voltage that appears across an inductor is due to its own magnetic field and Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

### Working and Difference between AC and DC

Remembering that the derivative is the local slope of the curve the purple line , we can see in the next animation why voltage and current are out of phase in an inductor. Again, there is a difference in phase: the derivative of the sinusoidal current is a cos function: it has its maximum largest voltage across the inductor when the current is changing most rapidly, which is when the current is intantaneously zero.

The animation should make this clear. Note how this is represented on the phasor diagram. This is shown in the next animation: when the frequency is halved but the current amplitude kept constant, the current is varying only half as quickly, so its derivative is half as great, as is the Faraday emf. For an inductor, the ratio of voltage to current increases with frequency, as the next animation shows. Impedance of components Let's recap what we now know about voltage and curent in linear components. The impedance is the general term for the ratio of voltage to current.

The table below summarises the impedance of the different components. It is easy to remember that the voltage on the capacitor is behind the current, because the charge doesn't build up until after the current has been flowing for a while. The same information is given graphically below. It is easy to remember the frequency dependence by thinking of the DC zero frequency behaviour: at DC, an inductance is a short circuit a piece of wire so its impedance is zero. At DC, a capacitor is an open circuit, as its circuit diagram shows, so its impedance goes to infinity.

### Isaac Physics

RC Series combinations When we connect components together, Kirchoff's laws apply at any instant. This should be clear on the animation and the still graphic below: check that the voltages v t do add up, and then look at the magnitudes.

The amplitudes and the RMS voltages V do not add up in a simple arithmetical way. Here's where phasor diagrams are going to save us a lot of work.

Play the animation again click play , and look at the projections on the vertical axis. Because we have sinusoidal variation in time, the vertical component magnitude times the sine of the angle it makes with the x axis gives us v t. So v t , the sum of the y projections of the component phasors, is just the y projection of the sum of the component phasors.

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So we can represent the three sinusoidal voltages by their phasors. While you're looking at it, check the phases. We'll discuss phase below. Now let's stop that animation and label the values, which we do in the still figure below. So we can 'freeze' it in time at any instant to do the analysis. The convention I use is that the x axis is the reference direction, and the reference is whatever is common in the circuit. In this series circuit, the current is common. In a parallel circuit, the voltage is common, so I would make the voltage the horizontal axis.

Be careful to distinguish v and V in this figure! Careful readers will note that I'm taking a shortcut in these diagrams: the size of the arrows on the phasor diagrams are drawn the same as the amplitudes on the v t graphs. The reason is that the peak values V mR etc are rarely used in talking about AC: we use the RMS values , which are peak values times 0. Phasor diagrams in RMS have the same shape as those drawn using amplitudes, but everything is scaled by a factor of 0. The phasor diagram at right shows us a simple way to calculate the series voltage.

The components are in series, so the current is the same in both. The voltage phasors brown for resistor, blue for capacitor in the convention we've been using add according to vector or phasor addition, to give the series voltage the red arrow.

## What is Alternating Current (AC) And Direct Current (DC) and Its Applications

At high frequencies, the capacitive reactance goes to zero the capacitor doesn't have time to charge up so the series impedance goes to R. We shall show this characteristic frequency on all graphs on this page. That simple result comes about because the two voltages are both in phase with the current, so their phasors are parallel. Ohm's law in AC. We can rearrange the equations above to obtain the current flowing in this circuit.

## Alternating current - Energy Education

So far we have concentrated on the magnitude of the voltage and current. We now derive expressions for their relative phase, so let's look at the phasor diagram again. So, by chosing to look at the voltage across the resistor, you select mainly the high frequencies, across the capacitor, you select low frequencies. This brings us to one of the very important applications of RC circuits, and one which merits its own page: filters, integrators and differentiators where we use sound files as examples of RC filtering.

The resulting v t plots and phasor diagram look like this. It is straightforward to use Pythagoras' law to obtain the series impedance and trigonometry to obtain the phase. We shall not, however, spend much time on RL circuits, for three reasons. First, it makes a good exercise for you to do it yourself. Second, RL circuits are used much less than RC circuits. If you can use a circuit involving any number of Rs, Cs, transistors, integrated circuits etc to replace an inductor, one usually does. The third reason why we don't look closely at RL circuits on this site is that you can simply look at RLC circuits below and omit the phasors and terms for the capacitance.

In such circuits, one makes an inductor by twisting copper wire around a pencil and adjusts its value by squeezing it with the fingers. RLC Series combinations Now let's put a resistor, capacitor and inductor in series.