Bloodless Revolution (The Graeme Stone Saga Book 5)

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Stephen Kelly and Ryan Perry. A Carthagian beauty who is still, from the Andalusia time, carries in her voice, a flowing hymn. O Tunisia, the dreams, you are the guard of arts, melodies, and scents. Farooq Juwaida. It is the smallest country in North Africa and covers , Tunisia is divided into 24 governorates; the capital Tunis is the smallest and the most populated. As of 1 July , the number of inhabitants was 11,, 5,, males and 5,, females , 2. The growth rate is estimated at 0. The majority of the population occupies the northern and coastal region of the country, with Because of its strategic location at the crossroads of Europe, Africa and the Middle East, Tunisia witnessed the succession of many civilizations throughout its history.

Its population is ethnically heterogeneous, with the presence of the indigenous Berbers together with people from the invading civilizations Phoenicians, romans, Arabs, and others as well as from migration. Formal Arabic is the official language, however, natives speak a dialect of Tunisian Arabic and Shilha is still used by Berbers.

French is the language used in most of the institutions; it plays an important role in education and the press. English is currently considered the second foreign language and it is now introduced at the elementary school level. The Tunisian family size average is 4. There is prevalence of consanguineous marriages and geographic endogamy, mainly in the more rural areas. Consanguinity rate ranges from Based on the statistics, Tunisia is classified in the high development category with a human development index HDI value of 0.

Furthermore, the gross national income per capita increased by However, this development is unevenly distributed and is much higher in the eastern coastal regions. Regional inequities are considered the main barrier to socioeconomic development, with more developed coastal regions and an impoverished interior. As per data, Such gaps between the different regions became more evident after the revolution Hermassi, A few years after the revolution, Tunisia's economy remains weak, with a high unemployment rate This situation led to labor emigration mainly to European countries.

Bilateral labors agreements were signed with a number of these countries with the expectation that these young workers will later return home. Unfortunately, the lack of job creation in Tunisia together with skill mismatches and the imposed restriction of immigration by European countries created a massive illegal migration flow mainly to Europe. Furthermore, this situation worsened following the Civil war in Libya as around 1. Just after the independence, our first president, Habib Bourguiba, enacted a law that allows all inhabitants to have access to free schools regardless of their religion, sex or race.

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However, the government does not mandate preschool, and most of the facilities are private. In , the World Bank reported that The rate of illiteracy among women was somewhat higher than that among men.


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The data showed that The report showed that However, female participation in the labor force is much lower compared to men The education system in Tunisia is recognized as one of the most modernized in the region. Several laws were instated to help with the integration of special needs students. However, not enough specialized centers to help patients with developmental and cognitive delays are offered and the increase in the number of integrative schools was paralleled by an increase in enrolled students.

Furthermore, there is a lack for trained professionals that can meet the needs of these patients. Evidence of Paleolithic settlement was found in different archeological sites in Tunisia, one of the oldest being Sidi Zin in the Northwest of the country Gragueb, Bones indicating the presence of savannah animals and therefore fresh water were unearthed.

The same site also showed the presence of the Aterian, another Middle Stone age culture. The Aterian industry is based mostly of flakes, Levallois techniques, scrapers and racloir tools. Furthermore, stone tools were found in the northern and central coastal areas of Tunisia going back to the Aterian civilization. Small flint tools of around 20, BC were attributed to a new culture that became the precursor to North Africa's Iberomaurusian civilization 18, to 8, BC. Small retouched blades, backed bladelets, simple endscrapers, geometrical pieces, among other artifacts were found in the site of Ouchtata, northwest of Tunisia.

The Iberomaurusian culture was thought to have emerged either as a result of the migration of Cromagnoids from the Iberian Peninsula, or from the local Aterian culture Ferembach, During the Holocene, the Capsian civilization covered the period between 10, and 7, BP. Archeologists were able to find stone and bone tools, shell beads and decorated bones, ostrich shell containers, as well as stylized women's heads carved from limestone.

The Capsians left shell heaps near their dwellings, indicating that snails were an important part of their diet. Evidence for hunting, fishing, food processing and cooking was also abundant. Capsians might be the immediate ancestors of Berbers Rahmani, In the eigth century B.

Carthage later became the greatest naval power of the Mediterranean. The temple of Eshmun, the Punic god of healing, was at that time built on the peak of Byrsa Hill, the highest point in the city of Carthage. All we know about the Phoenicians is through Greek and Roman sources, since all evidence was destroyed and the Carthaginian literature was lost. The skeletal remains of a young man along with funerary goods were found, all dated to the late sixth century BC Morel, DNA extracted from a small bone sample was used for the first complete ancient Phoenician mitochondrial genome study.

Data from other remain throughout the Mediterranean will help us understand the origin of Phoenicians and trace their migrations. Following the third Punic war — BCE between the Romans and Phoenicians, the Roman Empire became the most powerful force in the Mediterranean region and the region was completely Latinized and Christianized. By the end of the seventh century A.

They founded the city of Kairouan, about 90 miles south of Carthage, and they spread Islam as well as the Arabic language in the region. During the 16th and 17th centuries, epidemic waves, cricket invasions, and starvations led to the death of thousands of individuals.

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As the Ottoman Empire declined, the Berlin Congress of convened to discuss the future of the North African provinces. As a result, Britain acquiesced to France's control of Tunisia and in exchange took over Cyprus. In , the French sent their troops to invade Tunisia and imposed the treaty of Bardo. In , the Bey of Tunis signed an agreement that made Tunisia a French protectorate. It is not until that Tunisia got her independence from France and became a republic under the leader Habib Bourguiba.

On 25 July, , a republic was declared and Bourguiba became the first president of Tunisia. On 27 January , the new president signed the latest approved constitution replacing the one instated in and amended in and The country is still recovering after this political unrest and the violence threatening economic progress. Although Berbers are the autochthonous inhabitants of the country, the major historical settlements had a crucial impact on the genetic structure and diversity of the current population.

Despite all these historical admixtures, some genetic isolates still exist.

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Similar levels of gene diversity were found in both groups. South Tunisia constituted the gateway for Arab tribes invading North African cities. According to the official census in , the population living in the south of the country comprises Berbers, Black people, Jews, and Arabs.


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This haplotype was also present in Tunisian Berbers Following the Arab invasion of Tunisia, Berbers migrated to the south and populated the mountainous regions to escape persecution. This resulted in a low admixture between them and the Arab tribes. Haplogroup J subtype J1e , previously associated with the Islamic expansion, was found in Another study investigating the profile of HLA class I and class II genes was carried on a total of randomly selected unrelated Tunisians originating from the North, South and center of the country.

Common haplotypes found in Tunisians were also seen in Western Mediterranean populations. There was no evidence of an effect of the Arab invasions 7th and 11th centuries AD on the genetic makeup of the Tunisians including the autochthonous Berbers. This suggests that no or minimum admixtures occurred between Berbers and Arab tribes. One possible explanation can be the modest number of Arab invaders during the 7th century.

Moreover, establishment of settlements did not follow this invasion. Nowadays, Tunisian Jews constitute less than 0. Following the Arab invasion, some Jewish communities remained in the country but were subject to civil and religious suppression resulting in the high degree of endogamy. Four years later, a social protection system with a health insurance scheme and a subsidized care was implemented.