The Drinking Water Book: How to Eliminate Harmful Toxins from Your Water
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For those seekers that are looking for a no nonsense, straight from the hip look at water purification, this one is for you.
The Drinking Water Book: A Complete Guide to Safe Drinking Water - Colin Ingram - Google книги
Thanks so much Colin, for opening my eyes about drinking water. If you assume that your tap water is safe to drink just because your water company tells you so, this book might change your mind. Municipal water systems have been under pressure no pun intended for quite some time and, while not intentionally putting your health at risk, they may be doing so inadvertently.
And don't think that just because you are using a purifier or bottled water that you are in the clear, some purifiers do nothing more than make the water taste better leaving toxins behind and some bottled waters are nothing more than bottled tap water from another source. This book explores just about everything you can think of about drinking water - what is in it, finding out what is in it and how to remove things in it that are harmful. The first step is finding out what is in your tap water and you are shown exactly how to go about that. From there you can make a choice as to which purifier or bottled water source would most suit your needs and situation and this book details and grades all the different choices.
A very nice feature of this book is a chapter on four simple ways to improve water safety without special equipment - for those of us that may have financial considerations besides the health ones you get what you pay for in water purifiers and they can be very pricey. A very complete soup to nuts reference on the topic with one exception - the one water purifier that I was looking to research was not included. It is the British Berkefeld which is not a new system it dates back to the s so I'm not sure why it was not included; the only reason I can think is that since this book is older the system was not readily available in the US at the time.
I would have rated this book much lower because of this omission but the other material was so extensive that it almost made up for that flaw. I still give it a recommended rating as the information it does contain is thorough and helpful to anyone concerned about how their drinking water impacts their health.
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The Drinking Water Book : How to Eliminate Harmful Toxins from Your Water
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The Water Filtering Guide (And What Might Be in Your Water)
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In developing countries, the priority is to obtain biologically safe water. Waterborne diseases is a large issue globally especially in tropical countries with poor water supplies [ 17 ]. The chemical and physical characteristics of water should not be overlooked, but emphases on the biological quality treatment should be salient. The two treatment systems include: Central source treatment systems. Central source systems involve water treatment in a central location followed by distribution to the consumer. This is known as medium- or large-scale treatment.
The treatment is similar to conventional treatment used in developed countries. This type of treatment can be suitable for urban areas in developing countries. Challenges of network contamination and maintenance of the infrastructure are a large concern [ 48 ]. The treated water can be transported by tanker to rural areas, if piped networks are not present in a particular area. Risk management in terms of pollution of informal sources such as rainwater, shallow boreholes and small streams treated per household is a large concern [ 50 ].
When deciding on which type of POU treatment variables to consider, it should include ease of use, price, time for treatment and volume of water treated. A selection of point-of-use POU treatment commercial systems and small-scale technologies that can be utilised can be seen in Table 2. Chlorination was initially used to disinfect public water supplies since the early s, in cities in Europe and the United States of America.
In developing countries, a common method for treating water at source involves using a sodium hypochlorite solution placed in a bottle with directions for use. The user adds one full bottle cap volume of the solution to clear water or two cups volumes for turbid water to a standard-sized storage container.
The reason that chlorination is so popular is because it leaves a residual in the water matrix [ 57 ]. One of the large challenges of chlorination is the presence of high organic composition that can give rise to the formation of disinfectant-by-products which are considered carcinogenic.
Hybrid water treatment technologies are commonly used such as a combination of chlorination and flocculation. An example of the combined technologies involves a small sachet containing both a powdered ferrous sulphate a flocculant and calcium hypochlorite a disinfectant. A commercial design of this approach is known as Pu-R. To use Pu-R, users open the sachet and then add the contents to an open bucket containing 10 litres of water maximum.
This technique has been shown to remove bacteria, viruses and protozoa, even in highly turbid waters [ 58 ].
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Chlorination and flocculation can eliminate the formation of disinfectant by-products as the flocculation process can remove organics from the water. Filtration and innovations in filtration are a growing interest in the water industry. Basic filtration involved the use of porous stones, and a variety of other natural materials have been used to filter visible contaminants from the water for hundreds of years. Filters are an attractive option for household treatment [ 59 ].
Chemicals and toxins in your drinking water
A number of interrelated removal mechanisms within the filter media are relied upon to achieve high removal efficiencies. These removal mechanisms include the following processes: 1 sedimentation on media sieve effect , 2 adsorption, 3 absorption, 4 biological action, and 5 straining [ 60 ]. There are many porous materials which are locally available and inexpensive options for filtering water. They are simple and easy to use, and the filtering material has a long lifetime.
However, filtration has its drawbacks due to maintenance issues such as back flushing of filters and lack of residual effects with regard to disinfection. Again, hybrid water treatment technologies involving basic filtration have been investigated. An interesting membrane hybrid system combining trickling filtration filter and a thin layer of biomass biosand to reduce organic matter can be seen in the literature [ 61 ].
Other membrane designs that can be utilised include disc and tubular design, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. The scope for the removal of contaminants by filtration processes can be seen in Figure 9. More advanced filtration methods using biosolids have been developed. The biosand filter BSF is a slow sand filter which can be adapted for use at home. When the water pours over the filter, a shallow water layer is formed which allows a bioactive layer to grow on top of the sand, which breaks down pathogens in the water.
A plate protector prevents the water layer from being disturbed when more water is passed through the filter.
In the literature it can be shown that the BSF has high efficiency to remove bacteria and protozoa from the water [ 63 , 64 ]. An interesting study to remove arsenic from the water in the presence of iron can be seen in the literature in Nigeria using a sand filter. The filter immobilises arsenic As via co-oxidation with Fe 11 and sorption to or co-precipitation with the formed Fe to the filter surface [ 65 ].
One of the problems with the prolonged use of filters is the potential build-up of biofouling on the surface of the filter [ 66 ]. A combination of filtration and chlorination systems is also regularly used [ 67 ].
alphacore.projexmedia.com/guidelines-for-analysis-methods-and-construction.php Ceramic and slow sand filtration lack a residual disinfectant protection of water, to compensate for this filtration followed by chlorination can be used [ 68 , 69 ]. To remove arsenic As metal and its metalloids from drinking water, metal absorption phases have been utilised including iron oxide-coated sand, ferrihydrite red mud, activated alumina, TiO 2 , FePO 4 amorphous , MnO 2 , MnO 2 -loaded resin, natural zeolites such as clinoptilolite , iron oxide and iron-loaded chelating resin [ 70 ]. The use of the biosand iron oxide-coated sand filters to remove viruses from water can be seen in literature.
The method consists of electrostatic adsorption of negatively charged virion to sand particles with positively charged iron oxides [ 71 ]. The role of natural sunlight to disinfect water has much potential in developing countries. Solar disinfection SODIS method was initially developed to inexpensively disinfect water used for oral rehydration solutions [ 72 ]. Studies have shown that the SODIS method inactivates bacteria and viruses; the protozoa cryptosporidium and giardia are also sensitive to solar irradiation [ 74 ]. Other innovations using ultraviolet light can be seen in the literature [ 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 ].
One of the major advantages of ultraviolet light technology is its cheapness. One of the challenges is designing the technology for max trapping of the ultraviolet light.